The biggest health problem increasing in individuals, families, and communities is of suicide. Among the Americans it is the 11th highest cause of death. The suicides in which the person dies are only part of the problem. Actual problem arises when more people are fatally injured and then are hospitalized and released as a result of suicide attempts.
Suicide is not a response to stressful event, but it is a more complicated issue. Complex interactions between biological, psychological, social, and environmental factors makes a person commit suicide. It is the outcome of difficult and uncomfortable reactions in most people. Suicide is often hidden as secrecy which then limits the amount suicide prevention activities.
Many researches have opened a wealth of information on the reasons of suicide and the strategies to prevent it. Many factors have been identified which either increase or reduce the attempt of committing suicide. A national strategy for preventing suicide as it is a serious public health problem.
The first step in preventing suicide is to identify and understand the risk factors. A risk factor is anything that increases the likelihood that persons will harm themselves. However, risk factors are not necessarily causes. There are various common reasons for committing suicide which mostly include history of mental disorder, history of alcohol and substance abuse, family history of suicide , family history of child maltreatment , feelings of hopelessness , impulsive or aggressive tendencies , physical illness or may be Loss (relational, social, work, or financial)
Protective factors make people aware from the risks associated with suicide. The protective factors should include effective clinical care for mental, physical, and substance abuse disorders. It should have easy access to a variety of clinical interventions and support for help seeking. It should get family and community support as well as support from ongoing medical and mental health care relationships. There should be skills in solving the problems, conflict resolution, and handling of disputes without violence. We should promote cultural and religious beliefs that discourage suicide and support self-preservation instincts